DOI: 10.21276/ajptr
Thu, 19 Jul 2018

Evaluation of the toxicity of Annona muricata leaf extracts on liver and kidney function and investigation of acute and subacute toxicity in Wistar rats

Aivodji Natacha1, Ahokpe Melanie1, Justin Behanzin1, Sezan Alphonse1*

1.Laboratory of Biomembranes and Cell Signaling University of AbomeyCalavi, 06 BP 3041 Cotonou, Benin


ABSTRACT

The present work carried out in the laboratory of Biomembranes and Cell Signaling of the University of Abomey-Calavi in Benin aims to conduct a toxicological study on the ethyl extract of the leaves of Annona muricata, with a view to verifying the toxic effects in general, and in particular on the functioning of the kidneys and the liver in the wistar rat. In the present study, the extraction yield of this plant by ethanol was 9.6 ± 1.89. Then, on the one hand, the acute and subacute toxicities were induced in the rats of the experiment by gavage to our extracts at an interval of 48 hours for 10 days. These rats were distributed in 05 batches. Each batch receiving or not receiving a different dose of the Annona muricata extract. On the other hand, the toxic activity on the liver and kidneys was evaluated by daily gavage of 14 rats of 3 rats each using the Annona muricata ethyl extract at different doses (0.50 100 and 200 mg / kg).  Measurement of biochemical parameters (Urea, Creatinine, ASAT, and ALAT), weight-loss records, carried out during the first experiment showed that there was no significant increase urea, creatinine, and a significant decrease in ALT levels. On the other hand, a significant increase was observed in the ASAT. Following the death of the rat of lot 5 receiving 5000mg / kg, the LD50 was determined (LD 50 = 3750 mg / kg). This LD50 indicates that Annona muricata extract is weakly toxic. Sub-chronic administration of the extract confirmed that ASAT was progressively increasing in rats. The decrease in body mass was a good indicator of toxicity. In the second experiment, the measurement of biochemical parameters (Urea, Creatinine, Uric Acid, ASAT, ALAT) revealed an increase in the concentration of urea and creatinine and decreased concentration of uric acid at doses of extracts greater than or equal to 100 mg / kg PC. These results may suggest renal damage that has not been confirmed by the histological study of the organs taken (Liver and kidneys) from experimental rats. However, this study showed an early onset of hepatic involvement at the dose of 100mg / kg, which increased at a dose of 200mg / kg.

Keywords: Annona muricata, liver, kidneys, LD50, toxicity, Benin

 


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