Phytochemical and nutritional composition of Cyperus esculentus L. (Cyperaceae) whole tubers and Defatted Flour
ALLOKA-KOUAME Gbaka Alice*, BAGUIA-BROUNE Fatou Diane Micheline, N’GAMAN-KOUASSI Kohué Christelle Chantal, MAMYRBEKOVA-BEKRO Janat Akhanovna, BEKRO Yves-Alain
Organic Bio Chemistry and Natural Substances Laboratory UFR-SFA / NANGUI ABROGOUA University, 02 BP 801 Abidjan 02 (Côte d’Ivoire)
This study was carried out on dry tubers of Cyperus esculentus (Cyperaceae), collected in three northern localities of Côte d'Ivoire, with the aim of determining the mineral, phenolic and nutritional compositions of whole tubers and its defatted flour. The mineral composition was determined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the quantitative determination of the phytoconstituents was carried out by spectrophotometry. The nutritional and antinutritional parameters were determined by spectrophotometric and titration methods. As a result of the study, it was found that Cyperus esculentus tubers contain many macro- and trace elements with high levels of potassium (626.64-999.74 mg/100 g), phosphorus (494.35-544.60 mg/100g) and magnesium (124.25-146, 07mg/100g). The contents of whole tubers and those defatted in fat, protein, total carbohydrates and energy values were significant. As for the contents of total phenols and flavonoids, hydrolysable and condensed tannins, they vary respectively between 4215.52 and 5106.32 / 3740.52 and 4570.00 µg EAG/g DM; 10.80 and 14.68 / 6.00 and 8.10 µg EAG/g DM; 0.165 and 4.555 / 0.23 and 0.35 µg EAG/g DM; 725.33 and 1486.25 / 242.50 and 1110.98 µg EC/g DM. The analysis of the antinutritional (fibres, oxalates et phytates) parameters was carried out only on the defatted flour, whose contents are respectively 9.32 – 9.81%; 0.0495 – 0.055mg /100g; 12.24 – 33.23 mg/100g. With regard to the nutritional and energy values determined, the tubers of Cyperus esculentus have significant nutritional potential. In addition, its defatted flour contains natural proteins and sugars, which makes it suitable for animal feed.
Keywords: Cyperus esculentus, whole and defatted tubers, chemical composition, Côte d’Ivoire