Periodontitis and Diabetes Mellitus-A Short Review
Anitha Roy1*, Sosa George2
1.Faculty of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College,Chennai, India
2.Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, India
Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder caused by the deficiency of the pancreatic hormone insulin (Type 1 DM) or due to the resistance of the peripheral cells to the insulin secreted by pancreatic β cells(Type 2 DM). It is characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia. The patients are associated with symptoms like polyuria, polydipsia and polyphagia.Type I Diabetes is normally controlled by diet restriction, exercise and insulin therapy. Type II Diabetes is treated with various oral hypoglycaemic agents in addition to dietary restriction and exercise. In severe cases exogenous supply of insulin is also used for therapy. Periodontitis is considered to be the 6th complication of diabetes mellitus. It is a group of inflammatory diseases affecting the supporting structures that surround the tooth. It causes inflammation of gum, loss of alveolar bone and destruction of periodontal ligament. Maintaining oral hygiene is the first step in controlling periodontitis. Chlorhexidine or listerine mouthwash is used commonly. The antibiotic of choice for the treatment is Doxycycline. Diabetes promotes periodontal infection and causes periodontitis. The proinflammatory cytokines produced in response to periodontal infection increase the insulin resistance and aggravate Diabetes. Thus diabetes and periodontitis share a bidirectional relationship. The severity of periodontitis is related to the glycaemic control of the patient and not to the duration of diabetes. Control of blood glucose level and maintenance of oral heath are really important in diabetes mellitus. This article reviews the relation between diabetes mellitus and periodontal health.
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, periodontitis, hyperglycaemia, AGE, cytokines, bidirectional relationship