Roslizam Binti Said1,2*, J Anbu Jeba Sunilson1,2, Azian Abd Latiff3, K Anandarajagopal2
1.Centre for Postgraduate Studies, KPJ Healthcare University College, Kota Seriemas, Nilai 71800, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
2.School of Pharmacy, KPJ Healthcare University College, Kota Seriemas, Nilai 71800, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
3.Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Technology Mara, Sungai Buloh Campus, Jalan Hospital, 47000, Sungai Buloh, Selangor Darul Ehsan
Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body becomes resistant to insulin or doesn't make enough insulin. The major treatment approach for diabetes is the use of synthetic drugs and insulin. However the side effects associated with the use of synthetic agents attracts the attention of drug discovery professionals to search an effective treatment using natural products. Malaysian plants and herbs have been used as medicinal agents and studies have proved their significance in the treatment of diabetes. As the fruits of Gnetum gnemon (family: Gnetacea) locally known as melinjo are traditionally used to control diabetes by Malaysian and Indonesian tribes, the present study was aimed to evaluate the folklore claim about G. gnemon fruits to treat diabetes. Hexane extract (GGHE), chloroform extract (GGCE), ethanol extract (GGEE) and water extract (GGWE) were obtained by successive extraction using soxhlet extractor. The preliminary phytochemical analysis was carried out to perceive phytoconstituents in G. gnemon extracts. Diabetes was induced in albino rats by single dose of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg b.wt. i.p.) followed by nicotinamide (120 mg/kg b.wt. i.p.). Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were separately treated with GGHE, GGCE, GGEE and GGWE at dose of 400 mg/kg b.wt. and standard drug, glibenclamide (10mg/kg) respectively by oral administration for 14 days and antidiabetic potential of the extracts were assessed. Prelimary phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, phenolic compounds and tannins. Oral administration of diabetic rats exhibited significant (P<0.001) antidiabetic activity. Various serum parameters such as glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, bilirubin, total protein, urea, creatinine and uric acid were significantly (P<0.001) restored in the GGEE treated animals compared with diabetic rats and normal control. Histological study supported the protective effect of G. gnemon on pancreas in GGEE treated animals. The results illustrate G. gnemon to be a promising alternative for diabetes mellitus management, thus supporting its folklore claim.
Keywords: Gnetum gnemon fruits, diabetes, extracts, antidiabetic